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Is efficient sufficient? The case for shifting our emphasis in energy specifications to progressive efficiency and sufficiency

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This paper examines how the United States and Europe could change their approaches to specifying, labeling, and mandating the energy use of consumer products in response to the increasingly urgent climate constraints. It begins by looking at past and present policy approaches to energy efficiency, examines alternative strategies, and then frames a new series of metrics, thought processes, and policy approaches that may help to achieve greater and more rapid reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.