District heating and cooling systems are a viable sustainable solution to provide heat and cold in urban environments. In this paper, experts describe fifth generation district heating and cooling (5GDHC) systems and show how this concept differs from conventional district heating systems.
A 5GDHC system is decentralized, bi-directional, close to ground temperature networks that use direct exchange of warm and cold return flows and thermal storage to balance thermal demand as much as possible. 5GDHC offers a way to incorporate low temperature renewable heat sources including shallow geothermal energy, as well as reduce total demand by recuperating generated heat from cooling and generated cold from heating. The large scale of 5GDHC allows for optimal design of technical parts like heat pumps (...)