Life cycle energy and cost analysis of embodied, operational and user-transport energy reduction measures for residential buildings
Few studies have evaluated the overall life cycle energy demand of residential buildings, including their embodied, operational and user-transport requirements. To our knowledge, none has quantified the life cycle cost associated with reducing each of the aforementioned energy demands. It is critical to evaluate both energy and financial requirements in order to provide effective energy saving solutions for actors of the built environment. This study quantifies the life cycle energy and cost requirements associated with 22 different energy reduction measures targeting embodied, operational and user-transport requirements. It evaluates a case study apartment building in Sehaileh, Lebanon. Embodied, operational and transport energy requirements are calculated over 50 years using a comprehensive hybrid approach. Life cycle costs are quantified using the net present value technique. Results identify the most cost effective energy reduction measures and discard some others which are financially prohibitive, namely the installation of photovoltaic panels and the use of hybrid cars. A number of recommendations for building designers, occupants, urban designers/planners and decision makers are provided based on the quantified benefits of each measure. This demonstrates the need for assessments with a broad scope and their potential to inform about energy reduction strategies in the built environment.