In the discussion of global warming and the increasing costs of most energy carriers, the implementation of passive heating and cooling in all kinds of buildings has become more and more important, as these systems do not require the use of energy derived from fossil fuels. Passive heating means to minimise all avenues of heat loss from the building whilst maximising solar heat gains. Passive cooling includes the reduction of solar heat gain into the building, as well as removing heat from internal heat sources by passive (or natural) strategies, e.g. by night-time ventilation. Both passive heating and passive cooling rely on the site, structure and architectural design of the building and on the materials used in its construction. Their effect on the building’s net energy performance is considered in the calculation procedures set out in EN ISO 13790. This paper first defines the methods and systems used for passive heating and cooling before the various ways of calculating these effects that are specified in the CEN standards are described.
Information Paper P093