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Is there a unique definition in Europe for a Nearly Zero-Energy Building (NZEB)?

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Yes and No:

 

YES:

There is in article 2 of the EPBD Recast (Directive 2010/31/2U) a European definition of 'nearly zero-energy buildings:

‘nearly zero-energy building’ (NZEB) means a building that has a very high energy performance, as determined in accordance with Annex I. The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby.

 

NO:

As part of the transposition of the EPBD Recast into national legislation, each country is adopting a national definition of NZEB. In practice, it means that there are substantial differences between the NZEB definitions (in calculation method as well as  in type and level of requirements).

 

Interesting information can be found in the following report "2016 – Implementing the EPBD – Featuring Country Reports":